AbstractIn this article the author first looks at the expectations held for education as a key to the development for under-developed African countries. The high correlation that is to be found between formal education and economic growth in Western countries has led to the fact that formal education has been regarded as the solution for the economic, political and cultural problems of Africa. After more than two decades, in the course of which formal education has been much touted, the problems supposed to have been solved by formal education are becoming worse.
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