This introduction to "Neomarxism” begins by a formal analysis of the concept itself. It is suggested here that this term refers to the philosophical revival and revision of Marxist theory in the West. The philosophic-historical context of Neomarxism is consequently outlined so as to elucidate the basic elements of this revision. It appears that this context is determined by the dual experience of the betrayed revolution in the East and the abandoned revolution in the West. Against this background an explanation is then given as to why Neomarxist criticism of Marx concentrates especially on the so-called reductivist and deterministic elements in historical materialism. Finally the leitmotif of the Neomarxist critique of culture is defined. Their rejection of the technocratic ideal of progress not only demonstrates their departure from Marx and the Marxist belief in the emancipatory effect of the rational control of nature. In addition it justifies the view that a radical critique of Marx simultaneously implies a critique of the very roots of modern Western society.